There is currently no international consensus on screening. Surveillance protocols have been proposed by expert groups but have not been systematically studied.
||Age to begin
||Strategy and frequency
||Consider abdominal ultrasound, urine VMA** and HVA**, and chest X-rays 3 monthly
||Consider abdominal ultrasound, urine VMA** and HVA**, and chest X-rays 6 monthly
* The impact of lifestyle on cancer risk should be discussed e.g. exercise regularly, maintain a healthy weight, have a healthy diet, limit alcohol intake, do not smoke and avoid excessive sun exposure.
** VMA: vanillylmandelic acid; HVA: homovanillic acid