There is currently no international consensus on screening. Surveillance protocols have been proposed by expert groups but have not been systematically studied.
The choice of risk management strategy should take into account current age, other health issues and residual cancer risk.
||Strategy and frequency
||Consider abdominal ultrasound, urine VMA** and HVA**, and chest X-rays 3 monthly
||Consider abdominal ultrasound, urine VMA** and HVA**, and chest X-rays 6 monthly
* The impact of lifestyle on cancer risk should be discussed e.g. exercise regularly, maintain a healthy weight, have a healthy diet, limit alcohol intake, do not smoke and avoid excessive sun exposure.
** VMA: vanillylmandelic acid; HVA: homovanillic acid