No trials have evaluated whether manual palpation is effective but mammography not useful. Other factors such as obesity, chest wall radiation and gynaecomastia can increase the risk of male breast cancer.r BRCA related (especially BRCA2) male breast cancer is known to be more aggressive and have a more unfavourable prognosis than those occurring in individuals without a BRCA gene mutation.r
In the general population surveillance can be associated with over-diagnosis and over treatment with no evidence for improved short term survival (ten year period). There is preliminary evidence for value in surveillance of men with BRCA mutations,rr as data suggests that BRCA-related prostate cancer is aggressive and occurs at a younger age than sporadic prostate cancer.rr
There is currently no effective surveillance that detects early pancreatic cancer.