Routine mammographic screening is not recommended in males with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic variant. Although recent studies have demonstrated that mammography can detect clinically occult breast cancers in high-risk men, further research is needed to assess the value of this screening strategy.r There have been no trials to evaluate the effectiveness of manual palpation. Other factors such as obesity, chest wall radiation and gynaecomastia can increase the risk of male breast cancer.r BRCA-related (especially BRCA2) male breast cancer is known to be more aggressive and have a more unfavourable prognosis than male breast cancer occurring in individuals without a BRCA pathogenic variant.r
In the general population surveillance can be associated with overdiagnosis and overtreatment with no evidence for improved short-term survival (10-year period). There is evidence for value in surveillance of men with BRCA pathogenic variants,r as data suggests that BRCA-related prostate cancer is aggressive and occurs at a younger age than sporadic prostate cancer.rr
There is currently no effective surveillance that detects early pancreatic cancer.